Immigration in Norway

Pada tiga bulan pertama di tahun 2008 ini, jumlah populasi penduduk di Norwegia telah meningkat sebanyak 16.200 jiwa menjadi total 4.753.400 jiwa. Jumlah tadi merupakan peningkatan populasi kedua terbesar yang pernah tercatat dalam periode tiga bulan, dan juga sebanyak 5.800 jiwa lebih tinggi dari periode yang sama tahun 2007 lalu.

Foto: Grønland, salah satu pusat komunitas imigran di Oslo

Sumber: http://www.ssb.no/english

Tercatat, satu dari empat orang, atau 4.300 dari 16.900 imigran di periode tiga bulan pertama adalah imigran asal Polandia. Kelompok kedua terbesar adalah imigran asal Swedia (1.600), diikuti oleh Jerman (1.100) dan Lithuania (800).

Foto: Kota Oslo di senja hari

Secara total, hingga saat ini populasi imigran di Norwegia mencapai jumlah 9,7% atau 460.000 jiwa dari seluruh populasi di Negara ini. Mereka datang sebagai pengungsi, bekerja, studi, atau alasan keluarga dari 213 negara atau daerah yang independen. Berdasarkan asalnya, sebanyak 56.000 orang berasal dari negara Nordic lain, 57.000 berasal dari negara di Eropa Barat dan Amerika Utara, 48.000 berasal dari 10 negara anggota European Union di Eropa Timur, 52.000 dari negara Eropa Timur lainnya dan 246.000 berasal dari Turki dan negara Asia lainnya, termasuk Afrika dan Amerika Selatan. Khusus dari Indonesia, dibandingkan dengan mereka yang berasal dari Thailand, Vietnam atau Filipina yang mencapai ribuan, hanya ada sekitar 478 pendatang yang tercatat di KBRI Oslo. Komunitas Indonesia selain di Oslo, juga tersebar di Stavanger, Trondheim, Bergen dan Trømso. Khusus bagi pelajar, separuhnya terdapat di Trondheim.

Sumber: http://www.ssb.no/english

Ada sekitar 381.000 imigran generasi pertama dan 79.000 lainnya lahir di Norwegia dari orang tua yang keduanya adalah imigran. Semua distrik di Norwegia memiliki imigran. Jumlah terbesar ada di Oslo dengan 25% atau 140.000 orang . Separuh dari imigran generasi pertama dari Afrika, Asia (termasuk Turki), Eropa Timur, Amerika Selatan dan Tengah tiba di Norwegia sebagai pengungsi. Mayoritas dari imigran generasi pertama ini berasal dari Polandia, Swedia, Irak dan Denmark dan terdapat 45%dari populasi tadi telah memiliki kewarganegaraan Norwegia.

Foto: Poster keluarga kerajaan ‘imajiner’ yang multikultural sebagai bagian kampanye multi-kulturalisme oleh sebuah NGO

The immigrant population consists of people with two foreign-born parents: first-generation immigrants who have moved to Norway and people who were born in Norway of two parents who were born abroad.

Other immigration background
The following categories are used for people with a different immigration background: Adopted from abroad, born abroad with one Norwegian parent, born in Norway with one foreign-born parent.

Refugee = persons who, according to the Norwegian Directorate of Immigration’s register of refugees, have refugee status and have been granted residence permit in Norway.

Country of birth is mainly the mother’s residence country when the person was born.

Country background = own or, alternatively, parents’ country of birth. Persons who do not have an immigrant background only have Norway as country background.

Non-western country = Asia including Turkey, Africa, South and Central America and Eastern Europe.

(Sumber: http://www.ssb.no/english)

Jumlah imigran bervariasi dari tahun ke tahun tergantung pada kebijakan imigrasi yang ada, kebutuhan pasar tenaga kerja dan krisis global. Setelah perang Balkan di tahun 1990-an misalnya, terjadi peningkatan jumlah imigran yang signifikan. Di tahun2x terakhir ini, mayoritas imigran datang untuk berkeluarga dengan sesama imigran lain atau warga negara Norwegia.

Sejak sensus penduduk tahun 1865, Statistics Norway (semacam BPS/Biro Pusat Statistik) telah mempublikasikan secara resmi perkembangan jumlah imigran. Pada tahun tersebut, dari 1.7 juta populasi penduduk terdapat 1.2% mereka yang lahir di luar negeri (kebanyakan di Swedia).

Foto: Perayaan 17 May (Hari Konstitusi) di Oslo yang juga melibatkan kelompok imigran

Pada tahun 1920, populasi imigran sempat meningkat menjadi 2,8%. Sedangkan dalam masa perang, hanya terdapat sedikit lalu-lintas imigrasi, dan pada tahun 1950 hanya terdapat 1,4% dari populasi yang lahir di luar negeri.

Isu Rasisme

Meski jarang dibicarakan secara terbuka, rasisme menjadi sebuah isu penting yang selalu ada di Norwegia. Sekali waktu persoalan ini menjadi perhatian publik jika ada insiden yang terekspos media. Pembunuhan yang bersifat rasial pertama terjadi pada tahun 2001 lalu yang menimpa seorang pemain sepak bola muda berbakat berusia 15 tahun, Benjamin Hermansen di kota Oslo.

Pembunuhan oleh sekelompok pendukung Neo-Nazi ini memancing duka cita dan menumbuhkan solidaritas anti rasisme di seluruh negeri. (lihat box).

Foto: Grafitti bernada rasis di jalan kota Oslo



Giant mobilization against racism

Norway coming to terms with racism
By News Online’s Lars Bevanger

The brutal killing of Norwegian teenager Benjamin Hermansen united the Norwegian people in horror in a way never seen before. Nearly 40,000 people – workers, politicians, royalty – took to the streets of the capital Oslo, to show their anger at what is seen as Norway’s first racially motivated murder. Hermansen, the son of a white Norwegian woman and a Ghanaian man, was stabbed to death near his home in an Oslo suburb. Six people connected to Norway’s small neo-Nazi community have been charged with his murder.

When he was buried on Tuesday, schools across the country flew their flags at half mast, and hundreds of people packed into the Hermansens’ local church for a private service led by Norway’s chief Lutheran Bishop. Now that racism has become an acknowledged problem in Norway, a fierce debate is raging on how the authorities should deal with it.

Few convictions on racism

Since 1970 it has been a criminal offence in Norway to expose a person to hatred or lack of respect on the grounds of their colour of skin or ethnicity. But critics point out that so far only six people have been convicted under this clause.

Last year a fast-food kiosk in Oslo run by immigrants was fire-bombed. Shortly after posters went up in the area saying the attack was to stop the “blacks” selling drugs from the kiosk. “It is difficult to get somebody convicted on grounds of racism in Norway” Oslo Police Superintendent Finn Abrahamsen. One of the posters was signed “Masterrace 88” – the number is used by neo-nazi groups as shorthand for “Heil Hitler”. Three men were jailed for damaging property, but the court refused to regard the attack as racist.

The police say court decisions like this work as a disincentive for them to try to arrest people on racist charges. Superintendent Finn Abrahamsen from the Oslo police says this illustrates how difficult it is to convict somebody on grounds of racism in Norway. “It is rare that we can link written material which in our opinion is quite clearly racist, directly to acts of violence targeted at immigrants. We had that in this case, and it still wasn’t enough,” he says. But as a result of the Hermansen killing, Norway’s chief public prosecutor has asked all of Norway’s state lawyers to take a closer look at cases where the racism clause might be used.

Racist attitutes

Commentators differ on whether the killing will have a prolonged effect on people’s attitudes toward immigrants. Member of the Norwegian Parliament Inge Loenning says Norway is struggling with what he calls every-day racism. “People are still being denied jobs or sidelined for promotions. But I think what has happened has made at least many employers think twice about their attitudes,” he says.

Scandinavian reaction

Benjamin Hermansen’s brutal death has touched a nerve in other Scandinavian countries. Sweden has long struggled with an increasing number of neo-nazi groups, and racist, so-called “white power music” has in some areas become mainstream. Anti-racism demonstrations were held in both Stockholm and Copenhagen in response to Hermansen’s death. The eight governments of the Nordic Council, ending a meeting in Copenhagen on the day he was buried, said they felt “disgust over the racially motivated murder of a 15-year-old boy”.

A possible political change

In Norway the tragedy could influence the result of this year’s general election.
In the late 1990s the country’s far-right Progress Party gained huge popularity on the back of its anti-immigration policies, and grew to become Norway’s second largest political party. It has been accused of legitimising racist attitudes. But commentators say the party will have no choice but to play down their anti-immigration rhetoric in the months leading up to the election. They say voters could shy away from the political right in reaction to the killing of Benjamin Hermansen.

Sumber: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/1161853.stm

Secara pribadi, selama berada di Norwegia saya belum pernah mengalami perlakuan yang bersifat rasis (jangan sampai, deh). Namun, artikel media massa dan percakapan dengan beberapa kawan yang mengalaminya sempat membuat saya merasa was2x.

Sewaktu kuliah S2 di Belanda tahun 2003 lalu, sempat beberapa kali saya dan pelajar lain mengalami pengalaman tak mengenakkan dengan supir bus yang ‘aneh’ yang menolak berhenti jika hanya ada kelompok imigran Afrika dan Asia menunggu di halte. Pengalaman ini membuka mata saya akan betapa pahitnya menjadi korban rasisme.
Lebih jauh dan mendalam tentang isu rasisme ini akan saya bahas di post selanjutnya.

Sumber:
http://www.ssb.no/english (Statistisl Sentralbyrå)
http://www.antirasistisk-senter.no/english/news/africans_in_norway.html
http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/1149223.stm

4 thoughts on “Immigration in Norway

  1. Pingback: Rasisme di Norwegia | My Life, My Search, My Journey

  2. Pingback: “Saya bukan siapa-siapa…” « My Life, My Search, My Journey

  3. Felicity

    Iya nih, Bu. Sesama imigran harus kompak, yah. Terutama secara jumlah dari Indonesia nggak terlalu banyak….Trims buat komentarnya😀

    Reply

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